Also available on most major podcast platforms (e.g. Apple Podcasts / Google Podcasts / CastBox / etc.).


哈喽,大家好,我是Kaycee。

Hā lóu, dàjiā hǎo, wǒ shì Kaycee.

既然,按英国的时间,今天是春节,我就凑个热闹,提前一天发这个podcast,讲一下发红包这回事。
 
Jìrán, àn yīngguó de shíjiān, jīntiān shì chūnjié, wǒ jiù còu gè rènào, tíqián yītiān fā zhège podcast, jiǎng yīxià fà hóngbāo zhè huí shì.

在中国,遇到什么喜事,我们都要发红包嘛。春节的时候更是如此。以前,我小的时候,我们都管它叫压岁钱。 也就是钱放在红色信封里,由长辈给小孩儿的,以表示把新的一年的祝福和好运带给孩子们。

Zài zhōngguó, yù dào shénme xǐshì, wǒmen dōu yào fà hóngbāo ma. Chūnjié de shíhòu gèng shì rúcǐ. Yǐqián, wǒ xiǎo de shíhòu, wǒmen dōu guǎn tā jiào yāsuìqián. Yě jiùshì qián fàng zài hóngsè xìnfēng lǐ, yóu zhǎngbèi gěi xiǎo hái'ér de, yǐ biǎoshì bǎ xīn de yī nián de zhùfú hé hǎo yùn dài gěi háizimen.

现在不仅发给家里的孩子们,也会发给亲近的亲戚朋友们,甚至邻居家或者同事。我前年去中国工作的时候, 我跟我们北京办公室里的同事们关系还不错,就在微信里拉了个群。大家在群里组织午饭啊,晚饭啊之类的。微信不是有个钱包功能么,所以通常我们会是一个人用微信买单然后其他人用微信以发红包的功能来还钱。特别快。特别有效率。我当时不知道为什么在我的微信里找不到钱包这个功能,就在同事们的嘲笑中用现金还钱。毕竟,中国现在很少有年轻人身上还带着现金了。

Xiànzài bùjǐn fā gěi jiālǐ de háizimen, yě huì fā gěi qīnjìn de qīnqī péngyǒumen, shènzhì línjū jiā huòzhě tóngshì. Wǒ qiánnián qù zhōngguó gōngzuò de shíhòu, wǒ gēn wǒmen běijīng bàngōngshì lǐ de tóngshìmen guānxì hái bùcuò, jiù zài wēixìn lǐlāle gè qún. Dàjiā zài qún lǐ zǔzhī wǔfàn a, wǎnfàn a zhī lèi de. Wēixìn bùshì yǒu gè qiánbāo gōngnéng me, suǒyǐ tōngcháng wǒmen huì shì yīgè rén yòng wēixìn mǎidān ránhòu qítā rén yòng wēixìn yǐ fà hóngbāo de gōngnéng lái hái qián. Tèbié kuài. Tèbié yǒu xiàolǜ. Wǒ dāngshí bù zhīdào wèishéme zài wǒ de wéi xìn lǐ zhǎo bù dào qiánbāo zhège gōngnéng, jiù zài tóngshìmen de cháoxiào zhōng yòng xiànjīn hái qián. Bìjìng, zhōngguó xiànzài hěn shǎo yǒu niánqīng rén shēnshang hái dàizhe xiànjīnle.

在中国的时候,我正好赶上春节了。大年三十晚上,让我很惊讶的是,同事群里开始发红包了。一个人在群里发,其他人就可以抢。抢到了,里面的钱就是你的了。当然,这种红包内的金额都是比较小的。图个热闹、气氛而已。随后,我发现,我们一家人都低头看着电话在各种群里抢红包,发红包。而我呢,当时特别失落。在英国我们用的更多的是WhatsApp嘛,也没有什么钱包,收款,付款的功能。我在英国也很少用微信所以微信的钱包功能根本没有连上,也没搞清楚怎么连上,怎么发红包,抢红包,什么的。参与不上的我,就可怜巴巴的吃饭了,那几天体重就明显上升。具体数字,咱们就不说了哈。

Zài zhōngguó de shíhòu, wǒ zhènghǎo gǎn shàng chūnjiéle. Dà nián sānshí wǎnshàng, ràng wǒ hěn jīngyà de shì, tóngshì qún lǐ kāishǐ fà hóngbāole. Yīgè rén zài qún lǐ fā, qítā rén jiù kěyǐ qiǎng. Qiǎng dàole, lǐmiàn de qián jiùshì nǐ dele. Dāngrán, zhè zhǒng hóngbāo nèi de jīn'é dōu shì bǐjiào xiǎo de. Tú gè rènào, qìfēn éryǐ. Suíhòu, wǒ fāxiàn, wǒmen yījiā rén dōu dītóu kànzhe diànhuà zài gè zhǒng qún lǐ qiǎng hóngbāo, fà hóngbāo. Ér wǒ ne, dāngshí tèbié shīluò. Zài yīngguó wǒmen yòng de gèng duō de shì WhatsApp ma, yě méiyǒu shé me qiánbāo, shōu kuǎn, fùkuǎn de gōngnéng. Wǒ zài yīngguó yě hěn shǎo yòng wēixìn suǒyǐ wēixìn de qiánbāo gōngnéng gēnběn méiyǒu lián shàng, yě méi gǎo qīngchǔ zěnme lián shàng, zěnme fà hóngbāo, qiǎng hóngbāo, shénme de. Cānyù bù shàng de wǒ, jiù kěliánbābā de chīfànle, nà jǐ tiān tǐzhòng jiù míngxiǎn shàngshēng. Jùtǐ shùzì, zánmen jiù bù shuōle hā.

Anyway,回到正题,我们聊一聊红包的来源吧。

Anyway, huí dào zhèngtí, wǒmen liáo yī liáo hóngbāo de láiyuán ba.

红包的来源
传说,古时候有一种身黑手白的小妖,名 叫“祟”,”鬼鬼祟祟“的“祟”,每年的年三十夜里出来害人。它用手在熟睡的孩子头上摸三下,孩子吓得哭起来,然后就发烧,讲梦话,得病,使孩子变成傻子。人们怕祟来害孩子,就点亮灯火,不睡觉,称为“守祟”。在嘉兴府有一户姓管的人家,夫妻俩老年得子,视为掌上明珠。到了年三十夜晚,他们怕祟来害孩子,用红包包了八枚铜钱逼着孩子玩,一直玩到睡下,还放到枕头边。半夜里,祟摸孩子的头时,孩子的枕边出现一道亮光,祟急忙尖叫着逃跑了。管氏夫妇把这事告诉了邻居,一传十,十传百,家喻户晓,纷纷开始给孩子压祟钱。

Chuánshuō, gǔ shíhòu yǒuyī zhǒng shēn hēishǒu bái de xiǎo yāo, míng jiào “suì”,” guǐ guǐsuì suì “de “suì”, měinián de nián sānshí yèlǐ chūlái hài rén. Tā yòng shǒu zài shúshuì de háizi tóu shàng mō sān xià, háizi xià dé kū qǐlái, ránhòu jiù fāshāo, jiǎng mènghuà, débìng, shǐ háizi biàn chéng shǎzi. Rénmen pà suì lái hài háizi, jiù diǎn liàng dēnghuǒ, bù shuìjiào, chēng wèi “shǒu suì”. Zài jiāxìng fǔ yǒuyī hù xìng guǎn de rénjiā, fūqī liǎ lǎonián dé zi, shì wéi zhǎngshàngmíngzhū. Dàole nián sānshí yèwǎn, tāmen pà suì lái hài háizi, yòng hóngbāo bāole bā méi tóngqián bīzhe hái zǐ wán, yīzhí wán dào shuì xià, hái fàng dào zhěntou biān. Bànyè lǐ, suì mō háizi de tóu shí, háizi de zhěn biān chūxiàn yīdào liàngguāng, suì jímáng jiān jiàozhe táopǎole. Guǎn shì fūfù bǎ zhè shì gàosùle línjū, yī chuán shí, shí chuán bǎi, jiāyùhùxiǎo, fēnfēn kāishǐ gěi háizi yā suì qián.

到了明清朝代时,压祟钱里的“祟”字,也就是”鬼鬼祟祟“ 的“祟”,被改成了”岁月“的”岁“,寓义为“长命百岁”。直到今天,虽然发音一样,还是叫“压岁钱”,意思就不一样了。不再是预防妖怪,而是传递一种关爱以及祝福。有时候也是表示一种谢意。

Dàole míng qīng cháodài shí, yāsuìqián lǐ de “suì” zì, yě jiùshì” guǐ guǐsuì suì “de “suì”, bèi gǎi chéngle” suìyuè “de” suì “, yù yì wèi “cháng mìng bǎi suì”. Zhídào jīntiān, suīrán fāyīn yīyàng, háishì jiào “yā suì qián”, yìsi jiù bù yīyàngle. Bù zài shì yùfáng yāoguài, ér shì chuándì yī zhǒng guān'ài yǐjí zhùfú. Yǒu shíhòu yěshì biǎoshì yī zhǒng xièyì.

为什么是用红纸包钱呢?就是因为红色象征着好运。

Wèishéme shì yòng hóng zhǐ bāo qián ne? Jiùshì yīnwèi hóngsè xiàngzhēngzhe hǎo yùn.

吉利数字
我们也知道,中国人特别喜欢吉利的数字,所以有些人发红包时也会发一些吉利的数额。比如,888块钱,就是“发发发”,发财的意思。168块钱,“一路发”的意思。178块钱,“一起发”的意思。666块钱,代表着一帆风顺。爱人之间可能会发520块钱,也就是“我爱你”,999块钱,长长久久的意思,1,314块钱,也就是一生一世的意思。还有很多,你能想到一些我没有说的吗?

Wǒmen yě zhīdào, zhōngguó rén tèbié xǐhuān jílì de shùzì, suǒyǐ yǒuxiē rén fà hóngbāo shí yě huì fā yīxiē jílì de shù'é. Bǐrú,888 kuài qián, jiùshì “fǎ fǎ fā”, fācái de yìsi.168 Kuài qián,“yīlù fā” de yìsi.178 Kuài qián,“yīqǐ fā” de yìsi.666 Kuài qián, dàibiǎozhuó yīfānfēngshùn. Àirén zhī jiān kěnéng huì fā 520 kuài qián, yě jiùshì “wǒ ài nǐ”,999 kuài qián, zhǎng cháng jiǔjiǔ de yìsi,1,314 kuài qián, yě jiùshì yīshēng yīshì de yìsi. Hái yǒu hěnduō, nǐ néng xiǎngdào yīxiē wǒ méiyǒu shuō de ma?

(这个网页上总结了目前比较常用的吉利数字组合,大家好奇,觉得有意思的话,可以看一看:https://www.hunliji.com/bai_ke/detail_19769)

从我们发红包和收红包的方式就能看出来时代的变化。传统习俗依然存在,只是随着科技、经济以及社会的变化,现在我们已经习惯用手机来发红包了,而且收红包的群体也变得更广泛了。

Cóng wǒmen fà hóngbāo hé shōu hóngbāo de fāngshì jiù néng kàn chūlái shídài de biànhuà. Chuántǒng xísú yīrán cúnzài, zhǐshì suízhe kējì, jīngjì yǐjí shèhuì de biànhuà, xiànzài wǒmen yǐjīng xíguàn yòng shǒujī lái fà hóngbāole, érqiě shōu hóngbāo de qúntǐ yě biàn dé gèng guǎngfànle.

好了今年是鼠年,就祝大家鼠年大吉。祝天下有情人终成眷“鼠”。我们下周见。

Hǎole jīnnián shì shǔ nián, jiù zhù dàjiā shǔ nián dàjí. Zhù tiānxià yǒuqíng rén zhōng chéng juàn “shǔ”. Wǒmen xià zhōu jiàn.

Also on Apple Podcasts and most major podcast platforms. Simply search for “Also available on most major podcast platforms (e.g. Apple Podcasts / Google Podcasts / CastBox / etc.).

In this episode, I talk about the Kitchen God Festival or what I’d like to call “Little New Year”. This is when you start tidying the house and start stocking up for the new year so that you can be ready to welcome the Chinese New Year in a week’s time. 

哈喽,大家好。我是Kaycee。

Hā lóu, dàjiā hǎo. Wǒ shì Kaycee.

大家也许不知道,前两天分别是腊月二十三和腊月二十四,也就是中国的小年。腊月是阴历或农历十二月份的意思。

Dàjiā yěxǔ bù zhīdào, qián liǎng tiān fèn bié shì làyuè èrshísān hé làyuè èrshísì, yě jiùshì zhōngguó de xiǎo nián. Làyuè shì yīnlì huò nónglì shí'èr yuèfèn de yìsi.

小年呢其实在各地有不同的日期,北方地区是腊月二十三,南方大部分地区是腊月二十四。天津市民俗专家、专栏作家由国庆曾解释说,在中国古代,过小年有“官三民四船五”之说,官家在腊月二十三过小年,百姓腊月二十四过小年,而水上人家则在腊月二十五迎来小年。后来随着时间推移,北方地区逐渐以腊月二十三为小年,南方地区则把腊月二十四定为小年。所以小年,由于各地风俗,并非专指一个日子而是一种概念。

Xiǎo nián ne qíshí zài gèdì yǒu bùtóng de rìqí, běifāng dìqū shì làyuè èrshísān, nánfāng dà bùfèn dìqū shì làyuè èrshísì. Tiānjīn shì mínsú zhuānjiā, zhuānlán zuòjiā yóu guóqìng céng jiěshì shuō, zài zhōngguó gǔdài,guò xiǎo nián yǒu “guān sānmín sì chuán wǔ” zhī shuō, guān jiā zài làyuè èrshísānguò xiǎo nián, bǎixìng làyuè èrshísìguò xiǎo nián, ér shuǐshàng rénjiā zé zài làyuè èrshíwǔ yíng lái xiǎo nián. Hòulái suízhe shíjiān tuīyí, běifāng dìqū zhújiàn yǐ làyuè èrshísān wèi xiǎo nián, nánfāng dìqū zé bǎ làyuè èrshísì dìng wèi xiǎo nián. Suǒyǐ xiǎo nián, yóuyú gèdì fēngsú, bìngfēi zhuān zhǐ yīgè rìzi ér shì yī zhǒng gàiniàn.

之所以叫小年呢是因为这个日子是用来正式准备过年的。当然,这个过年指的是过春节。从小年起人们便开始“忙年”了。忙着准备年货、扫尘、祭灶等,准备干干净净过个好年,表达了人们一种辞旧迎新、迎祥纳福的美好愿望。

Zhī suǒyǐ jiào xiǎo nián ne shì yīnwèi zhège rìzi shì yòng lái zhèngshì zhǔnbèi guònián de. Dāngrán, zhège guònián zhǐ de shìguò chūnjié. Cóngxiǎo nián qǐ rénmen biàn kāishǐ “máng nián”le. Mángzhe zhǔnbèi niánhuò, sǎo chén, jìzào děng, zhǔnbèi gàn gānjìng jìngguò gè hǎo nián, biǎodále rénmen yī zhǒng cí jiù yíngxīn, yíng xiáng nàfú dì měihǎo yuànwàng.

祭灶王

据说,每年小年,灶王爷都要上天向玉皇大帝禀报一家人的善恶,让玉皇大帝赏罚。因此人们会在灶王画像前供放糖瓜、清水、料豆和秣草。糖果取意灶君顾着吃就顾不上说话,免生是非。后三样是为了灶王升天的坐骑备料。民间有“男不拜月,女不祭灶”的习俗,因此祭灶王爷,只限于男子。

Jùshuō, měinián xiǎo nián, zào wángyé dōu yào shàngtiān xiàng yùhuángdàdì bǐngbào yījiā rén de shàn è, ràng yùhuángdàdì shǎngfá. Yīncǐ rénmen huì zài zào wáng huàxiàng qián gōng fàng táng guā, qīngshuǐ, liào dòu hé mò cǎo. Tángguǒ qǔ yì zào jūn gùzhe chī jiù gù bù shàng shuōhuà, miǎn shēng shìfēi. Hòu sān yàng shì wèile zào wáng shēngtiān de zuòjì bèiliào. Mínjiān yǒu “nán bù bài yuè, nǚ bù jìzào” de xísú, yīncǐ jìzào wángyé, zhǐ xiànyú nánzǐ.

另外,据说大年三十晚上,灶王还要与诸神来人间过年,那天还得有“接灶”、“接神”的仪式。等到家家户户烧轿马,洒酒三杯,送走灶神以后,便轮到祭拜祖宗。

Lìngwài, jùshuō dà nián sānshí wǎnshàng, zào wáng hái yào yǔ zhū shén lái rénjiān guònián, nèitiān hái dé yǒu “jiē zào”,“jiē shén” de yíshì. Děngdào jiājiāhùhù shāo jiào mǎ, sǎ jiǔ sān bēi, sòng zǒu zàoshén yǐhòu, biàn lún dào jì bài zǔzōng.

这位灶王是谁呢?传说灶王爷原来是个平民叫张生,娶妻之后终日花天酒地,拜尽家业,沦落街头做乞丐。一天,他乞讨到了前妻郭丁香家,羞愧难当,一头钻到灶锅底下烧死了。

Zhè wèi zào wáng shì shéi ne? Chuánshuō zào wángyé yuánlái shìgè píngmín jiào zhāng shēng, qǔ qī zhīhòu zhōngrì huātiānjiǔdì, bài jǐn jiā yè, lúnluò jiētóu zuò qǐgài. Yītiān, tā qǐtǎo dàole qiánqī guō dīngxiāng jiā, xiūkuì nándāng, yītóu zuān dào zào guō dǐxia shāo sǐle.

玉帝知道之后,认为张生能回心转意,还没有坏到底,既然死在了锅底,就把他封为灶王。每年腊月二十三、二十四左右上天汇报,大年三十再回到灶底。

Yù dì zhīdào zhīhòu, rènwéi zhāngshēngnéng huíxīnzhuǎnyì, hái méiyǒu huài dàodǐ, jìrán sǐ zàile guō dǐ, jiù bǎ tā fēng wèi zào wáng. Měinián làyuè èrshísān, èrshísì zuǒyòu shàngtiān huìbào, dà nián sānshí zài huí dào zào dǐ.

随着时代的发展和人们生活方式的改变,现如今祭灶仪式已经几乎消亡,但“糖瓜”作为过年的第一信号,以及它所传达出的求吉纳祥的美好寓意依然保留下来。

Suízhe shídài de fǎ zhǎn hé rénmen shēnghuó fāngshì de gǎibiàn, xiàn rújīn jìzào yíshì yǐjīng jīhū xiāowáng, dàn “táng guā” zuòwéi guònián de dì yī xìnhào, yǐjí tā suǒ chuándá chū de qiú jí nà xiáng dì měihǎo yùyì yīrán bǎoliú xiàlái.

扫尘土

过了小年之后,离春节只剩下六、七天了,过年的准备工作显得更加热烈了。从小年一直到除夕,中国民间把这段时间叫做“迎春日”,也叫“扫尘日”。“扫尘”就是年终大扫除,为的是除旧迎新,拔除不祥。家家户户这天都要打扫环境,清理各种器具,拆洗被褥窗帘。到处欢欢喜喜搞卫生,干干净净迎新春的气氛。
洗浴大扫除之外还有一些其它,现在已经在慢慢消失的习俗比如大人,小孩儿都要洗浴和理发。民间有“有钱没钱,剃头过年”的说法。之外,吕梁地区,也就是现在的山西省,讲究腊月二十七日必须要洗脚。

Guòle xiǎo nián zhīhòu, lí chūnjié zhǐ shèng xià liù, qītiānle, guònián de zhǔnbèi gōngzuò xiǎndé gèngjiā rèlièle. Cóngxiǎo nián yīzhí dào chúxì, zhōngguó mínjiān bǎ zhè duàn shíjiān jiàozuò “yíngchūn rì”, yě jiào “sǎo chén rì”.“Sǎo chén” jiùshì niánzhōng dàsǎochú, wèi de shì chú jiù yíngxīn, báchú bùxiáng. Jiājiāhùhù zhè tiān dū yào dǎsǎo huánjìng, qīnglǐ gè zhǒng qìjù, chāixǐ bèirù chuānglián. Dàochù huān huānxǐ xǐ gǎo wèishēng, gàn gānjìng jìng yíng xīnchūn de qìfēn.
Xǐyù dàsǎochú zhī wài hái yǒu yīxiē qítā, xiànzài yǐjīng zài màn man xiāoshī de xísú bǐrú dàrén, xiǎo hái'ér dōu yào xǐyù hé lǐfǎ. Mínjiān yǒu “yǒu qián méi qián, tìtóu guònián” de shuōfǎ. Zhī wài, lǚliáng dìqū, yě jiùshì xiànzài de shānxī shěng, jiǎngjiù làyuè èrshíqī rì bìxū yào xǐ jiǎo.

婚嫁
过了小年,民间认为诸神上了天,百无禁忌。娶媳妇、聘闺女不用择日子,称为赶乱婚。直至年底,举行结婚典礼的特别多。这段有些听者可能会觉得很奇怪。为什么诸神上天了,就可以随便结婚了呢?那其它日子就不能随便结婚吗?结婚的日子是怎么选的呢?

Guòle xiǎo nián, mínjiān rènwéi zhū shén shàngle tiān, bǎiwújìnjì. Qǔ xífù, pìn guīnǚ bùyòng zé rìzi, chēng wèi gǎn luàn hūn. Zhízhì niándǐ, jǔ háng jiéhūn diǎnlǐ de tèbié duō. Zhè duàn yǒuxiē tīng zhě kěnéng huì juédé hěn qíguài. Wèishéme zhū shén shàngtiānle, jiù kěyǐ suíbiàn jiéhūnle ne? Nà qítā rìzi jiù bùnéng suíbiàn jiéhūn ma? Jiéhūn de rìzi shì zěnme xuǎn de ne?

在中国,结婚的日子是很有讲究的。一般会选一个吉利的日子。所谓的吉利通常是看黄历,一种中国传统日历。黄历中有各个日期的禁忌和适宜的事项。因此,人们会参考哪些日子适合娶嫁。所以小年后,诸神上天,没有禁忌了,从小年到年底每天都可以是结婚的佳日。

Zài zhōngguó, jiéhūn de rìzi shì hěn yǒu jiǎngjiù de. Yībān huì xuǎn yīgè jílì de rìzi. Suǒwèi de jílì tōngcháng shì kàn huánglì, yī zhǒng zhōngguó chuántǒng rìlì. Huánglì zhōng yǒu gège rìqí de jìnjì hé shìyí de shìxiàng. Yīncǐ, rénmen huì cānkǎo nǎxiē rìzi shìhé qǔ jià. Suǒyǐ xiǎo nián hòu, zhū shén shàngtiān, méiyǒu jìnjìle, cóngxiǎo nián dào niándǐ měitiān dū kěyǐ shì jiéhūn de jiā rì.

好了,下周就过春节了。在此,祝大家新的一年里,事事如意,身体健康。

Hǎole, xià zhōu jiùguò chūnjiéle. Zài cǐ, zhù dàjiā xīn de yī nián lǐ, shì shì rúyì, shēntǐ jiànkāng.

我们下周见

Wǒmen xià zhōu jiàn

For this episode, my friend Alex (a full-time doctor) kindly joined me to compare and discuss the basics of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine, primarily by analysing two common sayings in China and the west respectively. Both English (original) and Chinese (interpreted) versions of the episode are available.

Also available on most major podcast platforms (e.g. Apple Podcasts / Google Podcasts / CastBox / etc.).

Kaycee: Hi everyone, I’ve got a very special friend here with me today. Her name is Alex and she’s currently in her first year as a proper, real, practising doctor. So you’ve done your 6 years of training and education and now you’ve officially been working as a doctor in a hospital for the past 4 months, is that right? 4 or 5 months? 

嗨,大家好,我今天邀请了一位很特殊的朋友。她叫Alex,现在是一位名副其实的医生。经历了6年的教育和培训,她在4,5个月前正式成为了一名医生。对吗?

Hāi, dàjiā hǎo, wǒ jīntiān yāoqǐngle yī wèi hěn tèshū de péngyǒu. Tā jiào Alex, xiànzài shì yī wèi míngfùqíshí de yīshēng. Jīnglìle 6 nián de jiàoyù hé péixùn, tā zài 4,5 gè yuè qián zhèngshì chéngwéile yī míng yīshēng. Duì ma?

Alex: Yeah, just over.

对,四个月多一点。

Duì, sì gè yuè duō yīdiǎn.

Kaycee: How does that feel? 

感觉怎么样?

Gǎnjué zěnme yàng?

Alex: Yeah, the novelty’s not worn off yet. So, everyday’s still very exciting. 

新鲜感还没有过。每天还是很精彩。

Xīnxiān gǎn hái méiyǒuguò. Měitiān háishì hěn jīngcǎi.

Kaycee: Do you still get a kick out of saving lives? 

挽救生命还是让你热血沸腾吗?

Wǎnjiù shēngmìng háishì ràng nǐ rèxuèfèiténg ma?

Alex: Uhhh… yeah. 

嗯。。。是的。

En… Shì de.

Kaycee: That’s good! That’s what we want to hear!

那就好。这是我们希望听到的答案。

Nà jiù hǎo. Zhè shì wǒmen xīwàng tīng dào de dá’àn.

Alex: It’s a privilege so yeah.  

是我的荣幸。

Shì wǒ de róngxìng.

Kaycee: So, staying on the topic of medicine. One of the many things that stand out about China and is so intrinsically Chinese is traditional Chinese medicine. Whilst we won’t go in depth about traditional Chinese medicine, there is this Chinese proverb that I think sums this up this idea behind traditional Chinese medicine and it’s “冬吃萝卜夏吃姜,不用医生开药方”, which means “eat radish in winter, ginger in summer, avoid the doctor having to write a prescription”. And I guess the English equivalent would be “An apple a day keeps the doctor away”. So you’re familiar with this idea of an apple a day keeps the doctor away, do you agree with it? 

来,我们继续聊医学这个话题。中国文化里有很多脱颖而出的东西,其一就是中医。我们先不深入的介绍中医这块但是中国有一句谚语我觉得足够概括中医的中心思想。 它就是“冬吃萝卜夏吃姜,不用医生开药方” 英语里有一句类似的话,就是,“An apple a day keeps the doctor away”。 每天吃个苹果,避免看医生。你对每天吃个苹果避免看医生这句话应该很熟悉,你同意吗?

Lái, wǒmen jìxù liáo yīxué zhège huàtí. Zhōngguó wénhuà li yǒu hěnduō tuōyǐng’érchū de dōngxī, qí yī jiùshì zhōngyī. Wǒmen xiān bù shēnrù de jièshào zhōngyī zhè kuài dànshì zhōngguó yǒu yījù yànyǔ wǒ juédé zúgòu gàikuò zhōngyī de zhōngxīn sīxiǎng. Tā jiùshì “dōng chī luóbo xià chī jiāng, bùyòng yīshēng kāi yàofāng” yīngyǔ li yǒu yījù lèisì dehuà, jiùshì,“An apple a day keeps the doctor away”. Měitiān chī gè píngguǒ, bìmiǎn kàn yīshēng. Nǐ duì měitiān chī gè píngguǒ bìmiǎn kàn yīshēng zhè jù huà yīnggāi hěn shúxī, nǐ tóngyì ma?

Alex: Well, I wouldn’t say I agree with it or disagree with it. I think it’s a phrase we’ve had. I’ve not heard of the Chinese phrase before so it’s nice to hear it but it sounds like very much the same, the same sort of thing, you know? Look after your body and keep away from the doctor. Take care of yourself, eat well. Kind of something your grandmother would tell you or your nan would tell you.

我不能说我同意或不同意,这么说吧,我认为这是一句俗语。我没有听过中文版本的,听起来很好听。我觉得这两句话听起来很相似。照顾好自己的身体,远离医生。照顾好自己,吃好喝好。像是你的奶奶姥姥会跟你讲的。

Wǒ bùnéng shuō wǒ tóngyì huò bù tóngyì, zhème shuō ba, wǒ rènwéi zhè shì yījù súyǔ. Wǒ méiyǒu tīngguò zhōngwén bǎnběn de, tīng qǐlái hěn hǎotīng. Wǒ juédé zhè liǎng jù huà tīng qǐlái hěn xiāngsì. Zhàogù hǎo zìjǐ de shēntǐ, yuǎnlí yīshēng. Zhàogù hǎo zìjǐ, chī hǎo hē hǎo. Xiàng shì nǐ de nǎinai lǎolao huì gēn nǐ jiǎng de.

Kaycee: Yeah, exactly. 

对。

Duì.

Alex: We don’t really have traditional English medicine or traditional herbal medicine, guess we have homeopathy in the UK, which  is probably the only thing that maybe is equivalent. 

我们没有传统英国医学或者传统草药学。我能想到最接近中医的就是顺势疗法了。

Wǒmen méiyǒu chuántǒng yīngguó yīxué huòzhě chuántǒng cǎoyào xué. Wǒ néng xiǎngdào zuì jiējìn zhōngyī de jiùshì shùnshì liáofǎle.

Kaycee: So, going back to the Chinese proverb, the Chinese proverb demonstrates the practices of Chinese medicine and takes on the traditional Chinese philosophy of yin and yang. During winter, we are likely to eat lots of warm food, like hot pot, dumplings, which may lead to an increase of heat in the body or too much yang energy in the body. So, according to Chinese medicine, this could lead to inflammations, sore throat and fever. The radish, being an example of a cold-generating vegetable, it balances the overheating of the body, so the yin balancing the yang. And likewise, we often eat too much cold food during summer, which can lead to the body catching chills or accumulating a cold yin energy, causing fatigue, muscle ache and joint aches. The ginger, being a heat-giving vegetable, balances the chills in the body. So in that way, the yang balancing the yin and balances out the body’s energy in that sense. How does that look from a western medicine perspective? 

回到中文的谚语。这句谚语不仅展示了中医的方法,它还传承了中国古代哲学思想,阴和阳。 冬天的时候,我们会吃很多热食比如火锅、饺子、之类的,阳气太重,容易上火。中医就讲说,这可能导致炎症,喉咙痛和发烧。萝卜甘寒解热所以会推荐吃萝卜来平衡身体里的烦热。同样,由于夏季炎热,人们往往吃很多偏冷的食物,很容易着凉。阴气过重,容易导致疲劳、肌肉酸痛和关节疼痛。 姜,散寒祛暑,让身体找回原有的平衡点。从西医的角度,你怎么看这句话呢?

Huí dào zhōngwén de yànyǔ. Zhè jù yànyǔ bùjǐn zhǎnshìle zhōngyī de fāngfǎ, tā hái chuánchéngle zhōngguó gǔdài zhéxué sīxiǎng, yīn hé yáng. Dōngtiān de shíhòu, wǒmen huì chī hěnduō rè shí bǐrú huǒguō, jiǎozi, zhī lèi de, yáng qì tài zhòng, róngyì shàng huǒ. Zhōngyī jiù jiǎng shuō, zhè kěnéng dǎozhì yánzhèng, hóulóng tòng hé fāshāo. Luóbo gān hán jiě rè suǒyǐ huì tuījiàn chī luóbo lái pínghéng shēntǐ lǐ de fán rè. Tóngyàng, yóuyú xiàjì yánrè, rénmen wǎngwǎng chī hěnduō piān lěng de shíwù, hěn róngyì zháoliáng. Yīn qìguò zhòng, róngyì dǎozhì píláo, jīròu suāntòng hé guānjié téngtòng. Jiāng, sàn hán qū shǔ, ràng shēntǐ zhǎo huí yuán yǒu de pínghéng diǎn. Cóng xīyī de jiǎodù, nǐ zěnme kàn zhè jù huà ne?

Alex: It’s nothing I’ve been taught about or nothing that I’m aware of that correlates to that. Generally advice to eat a balanced diet but there is nothing about generating heat from certain foods or cold from certain foods.  

我没有学过这些也不知道跟这相关的东西。广泛的建议是饮食均衡,我没有听过某种食物会增加热气或寒气。

Wǒ méiyǒu xuéguò zhèxiē yě bù zhīdào gēn zhè xiāngguān de dōngxī. Guǎngfàn de jiànyì shì yǐnshí jūnhéng, wǒ méiyǒu tīngguò mǒu zhǒng shíwù huì zēngjiā rèqì huò hánqì.

Kaycee: It’s very interesting because when I was younger, we’ve always believed in this idea that if you have a fever, if you have a high temperature, that’s the body having too much yin energy and so your body is increasing its temperature to fight off that cold within your body so then, how we deal with that is, we wrap ourselves warm in like duvets and blankets and keep drinking soup, like hot soup, hot water, to help the body continue to heat up so that you sweat and that sweat cools the body down. I noticed that in the UK, you would use, I don’t know, you would use ice or a cold towel to, like, cool yourself down. And to me, at first, that was a very foreign concept, I was like, what are you doing?! But, I guess you’re in a better position to explain the science behind why we do what we do.

这个很有意思因为,从小,我们就相信如果着凉了,身体里的寒气太多了,你就会发烧。我们会用被子把自己包得暖暖的,一直喝热汤、热水,让自己出汗。一出汗,体温就会降下来。我发现,在英国,你会用冰块或者冷毛巾来让体温降下来。刚开始,我很惊讶,你们这是在干什么?!不过,你应该能更好的来解释我们这些行为背后的科学依据。

Zhège hěn yǒuyìsi yīnwèi, cóngxiǎo, wǒmen jiù xiāngxìn rúguǒ zháoliángle, shēntǐ lǐ de hánqì tài duōle, nǐ jiù huì fāshāo. Wǒmen huì yòng bèizi bǎ zìjǐ bāo dé nuǎn nuǎn de, yīzhí hē rè tāng, rè shuǐ, ràng zìjǐ chū hàn. Yī chū hàn, tǐwēn jiù huì jiàng xiàlái. Wǒ fāxiàn, zài yīngguó, nǐ huì yòng bīng kuài huòzhě lěng máojīn lái ràng tǐwēn jiàng xiàlái. Gāng kāishǐ, wǒ hěn jīngyà, nǐmen zhè shì zài gànshénme?! Bùguò, nǐ yīnggāi néng gèng hǎo de lái jiěshì wǒmen zhèxiē xíngwéi bèihòu de kēxué yījù.

Alex: Well, if you think of one of the most common causes of a fever, it would be an infection, right? So, a cold, which is just a simple virus, gets into your mucosal, around your nose and around your throat. Your body reacts to that, sends off lots of information, signals, within your body, to increase your temperature in order to fight off this virus. So, often, we would try to treat that by bringing down that fever. Because it’s the fever that makes you feel really lousy, makes you feel really tired and make you feel not so good. Extremely high fevers can be very bad as well. So, for like the brain and stuff, and increases your risk of other problems. So you should try and bring it down. 

可以这么想,导致发烧最常见的原因之一就是感染,对吧?感冒是一种简单的病毒,进入你的黏膜,在你的鼻子和喉咙里穿梭。你的身体会有反应,在体内发送大量的信号,让身体提高温度,抵抗这种病毒。所以我们会尝试通过各种方式来治疗发烧。因为是发烧让你感觉非常糟糕,疲倦,不是很舒服。极高的温度也很糟糕,对大脑和其他地方来讲都有风险。所以,我们要尽量让体温降下来。

Kěyǐ zhème xiǎng, dǎozhì fāshāo zuì chángjiàn de yuányīn zhī yī jiùshì gǎnrǎn, duì ba? Gǎnmào shì yī zhǒng jiǎndān de bìngdú, jìnrù nǐ de niánmó, zài nǐ de bízi hé hóulóng lǐ chuānsuō. Nǐ de shēntǐ huì yǒu fǎnyìng, zài tǐnèi fāsòng dàliàng de xìnhào, ràng shēntǐ tígāo wēndù, dǐkàng zhè zhǒng bìngdú. Suǒyǐ wǒmen huì chángshì tōngguò gè zhǒng fāngshì lái zhìliáo fāshāo. Yīn wéi shì fāshāo ràng nǐ gǎnjué fēicháng zāogāo, píjuàn, bùshì hěn shūfú. Jí gāo de wēndù yě hěn zāogāo, duì dànǎo hé qítā dìfāng lái jiǎng dōu yǒu fēngxiǎn. Suǒyǐ, wǒmen yào jǐnliàng ràng tǐwēn jiàng xiàlái.

Kaycee: Is there a difference between me trying to sweat it out versus you putting a cold towel around your head?

那我用出汗来降低体温和你把冷毛巾放在头上有什么区别吗?

Nà wǒ yòng chū hàn lái jiàngdī tǐwēn hé nǐ bǎ lěng máojīn fàng zài tóu shàng yǒu shé me qūbié ma?

Alex: Umm… negligible.  

嗯。。。几乎没有。

En… Jīhū méiyǒu.

Kaycee: I guess that’s the fundamental difference between the two cultures. 

那这就是两种文化之间的区别了。

Nà zhè jiùshì liǎng zhǒng wénhuà zhī jiān de qūbiéle.

Alex: I think that’s interesting, because you’re talking about cultures there versus, sort of, practice and, I think, whenever you think about traditional Chinese medicine, it’s very different from Chinese medicine because there are lots of great hospitals in China and great doctors in China who released many studies and have lots of different centres and they all follow modern day medicine as we know. So it would be following the same practises but then also you’ve got the traditional Chinese medicine which kind of is similar to homeopathy. It’s similar to that branch of medicine that maybe doesn’t have the scientifical basis. Is that the right word?

我觉得这个很有意思,因为你说的是文化与实践。其实中国传统医学和中国医学是不同的。中国有很多一流的医院和优秀的医生,他/她们发表了许多研究报告也有很多不同的研究中心,运用现代医学理念和方式。在此之外,还有中医, 类似于顺势疗法,没有任何科学依据。Scientifical,这个词,对吗?

Wǒ juédé zhège hěn yǒuyìsi, yīnwèi nǐ shuō de shì wénhuà yǔ shíjiàn. Qíshí zhōngguó chuántǒng yīxué hé zhōngguó yīxué shì bùtóng de. Zhōngguó yǒu hěnduō yīliú de yīyuàn hé yōuxiù de yīshēng, tā/tāmen fābiǎole xǔduō yán jiù bàogào yěyǒu hěnduō bùtóng de yánjiū zhōngxīn, yùnyòng xiàndài yīxué lǐniàn hé fāngshì. Zài cǐ zhī wài, hái yǒu zhòng yī, lèisì yú shùnshì liáofǎ, méiyǒu rènhé kēxué yījù. Scientifical, zhège cí, duì ma?

Kaycee: Scientific? 

Alex: Scientific. Scientifical, scientific. Uhhh… you know, something that proves it is of benefit and can help a person who’s sick. 对,Scientific.

Scientifical, scientific. 可以证明是有益的,可以帮助病人的。

Scientifical, scientific. Kěyǐ zhèngmíng shì yǒuyì de, kěyǐ bāngzhù bìngrén de.

Kaycee: Yeah, yeah, that’s very interesting because you’re right, in modern day China, if someone is sick, what we would do is take them to the hospital, which majority, if not all, practise modern medicine. And then, if it doesn’t work then we would go and seek other methods, whether that’s herbal medicine or acupuncture. So then you go down the traditional route. 

对,对。很有趣。你说的很对,现在在中国,如果有人有病了的话,首先我们会带病人去医院。所有,或者大部分,医院都是用现代医学来治病。然后,如果病人还不好,那可能就会尝试其他方法,草药或者针灸。就走传统路线了。

Duì, duì. Hěn yǒuqù. Nǐ shuō de hěn duì, xiànzài zài zhōngguó, rúguǒ yǒurén yǒu bìngle dehuà, shǒuxiān wǒmen huì dài bìngrén qù yīyuàn. Suǒyǒu, huòzhě dà bùfèn, yīyuàn dōu shì yòng xiàndài yīxué lái zhì bìng. Ránhòu, rúguǒ bìngrén hái bù hǎo, nà kěnéng jiù huì chángshì qítā fāngfǎ, cǎoyào huòzhě zhēnjiǔ. Jiù zǒu chuántǒng lùxiànle.

Alex: That’s when you start to worry, something that’s proven to work and it hasn’t worked for whatever reason, either because their disease is too advanced or it’s not the right treatment or there is no treatment or whatever, then they choose alternative routes. They’re being – you know, they’re very vulnerable then. You’re sick, nothing is working, you’ll try anything right? So, it’s making sure that those people are cared for I guess. And there’s lots of people in the UK, not just Chinese people, as well, who use Chinese medicine and who go to, you know, acupunctures or try alternative treatments. 

这时候就开始担心了,核实过的治疗方法行不通了,无论是他/她们的疾病太严重了,治疗方式不合适还是已经用尽一切办法了。那个时候病人们已经很虚弱了,走投无路了,肯定什么都会尝试一下。我们要确保这些人是安全的。在英国很多人,不仅是中国人,会用中医。针灸或其他疗法。

Zhè shíhòu jiù kāishǐ dānxīnle, héshíguò de zhìliáo fāngfǎ xíng bùtōngle, wúlùn shì tā/tāmen de jíbìng tài yánzhòngle, zhìliáo fāngshì bù héshì háishì yǐjīng yòng jìn yīqiè bànfǎle. Nàgè shíhòu bìng rénmen yǐjīng hěn xūruòle, zǒutóuwúlùle, kěndìng shénme dūhuì chángshì yīxià. Wǒmen yào quèbǎo zhèxiē rén shì ānquán de. Zài yīngguó hěnduō rén, bùjǐn shì zhōngguó rén, huì yòng zhōngyī. Zhēnjiǔ huò qítā liáofǎ.

Kaycee: Mhmm, yep, in a previous conversation, you’ve said, whilst it may not have a solid scientific basis, it does provide some comfort for the patients and it’s the emotional support, maybe, that helps them to get through some of these illness that they may have. That can be as powerful. 

对的。我们之前一个对话中,你说过,虽然中医没有很扎实的科学基础,它可以给病人带来安慰,帮助病人度过那一段时期。情感支柱也同样很重要。

Duì de. Wǒmen zhīqián yīgè duìhuà zhōng, nǐ shuōguò, suīrán zhōngyī méiyǒu hěn zhāshi de kēxué jīchǔ, tā kěyǐ gěi bìngrén dài lái ānwèi, bāngzhù bìngrén dùguò nà yīduàn shíqí. Qínggǎn zhīzhù yě tóngyàng hěn zhòngyào.

Alex: I think, maybe it’s something we are missing in healthcare. I know that in the UK, some hospitals are very busy or we don’t have time or we focus very heavily on what we can do medically when actually there is a lot that we can do for other types of, sort of, symptomatic relief and sort of helping people along in that psychological support. Especially in hospitals, people get very low. People have very polarising views on this right? So most healthcare professionals have, you know, as a general rule, are very against it. It can be very dangerous using these alternative medicines. But then, also, we know that for most diseases, like MS, because one of the biggest determinants is your mood and how you view it. A lot of your mood and how you view the disease and how you battle the disease can really help you as well. It can really impact how it affects your life.

也许我们在医疗方面缺少这一块。英国的一些医院很忙,没有太多时间,或者太注重医疗,忽略了其他缓解病情的方法。我们是可以给病人心理方面的支持。尤其是在医院里,人们一般很低落。人们有非常分歧的看法。很多医生都很反对使用这些替代药物,他们认为这些很危险。同时,我们也知道一些疾病,比如多发性硬化,病人的情绪是影响病情的最大因素之一。对病情的看法和如何与疾病作斗争真的可以帮助病人。

Yěxǔ wǒmen zài yīliáo fāngmiàn quēshǎo zhè yīkuài. Yīngguó de yīxiē yīyuàn hěn máng, méiyǒu tài duō shíjiān, huòzhě tài zhùzhòng yīliáo, hūlüèle qítā huǎnjiě bìngqíng de fāngfǎ. Wǒmen shì kěyǐ gěi bìngrén xīnlǐ fāngmiàn de zhīchí. Yóuqí shì zài yīyuàn lǐ, rénmen yībān hěn dīluò. Rénmen yǒu fēicháng fēnqí de kànfǎ. Hěnduō yīshēng dōu hěn fǎnduì shǐyòng zhèxiē tìdài yàowù, tāmen rènwéi zhèxiē hěn wéixiǎn. Tóngshí, wǒmen yě zhīdào yīxiē jíbìng, bǐrú duōfā xìng yìnghuà, bìngrén de qíngxù shì yǐngxiǎng bìngqíng de zuìdà yīnsù zhī yī. Duì bìngqíng de kànfǎ hé rúhé yǔ jíbìng zuò dòuzhēng zhēn de kěyǐ bāngzhù bìngrén.

Kaycee: So, going down to it, of course, neither of these sayings, whether it’s to eat radish or ginger or apples, whilst these are not to be taken as gospel and it’s not to be taken as medical relief, it helps to give a mindset of how to live a balanced, healthy lifestyle. So, I think, in that sense, in those two sayings, it sums up the different attitudes that we have and in western culture, it’s more emphasis on perhaps your five-a-day, your fruit and veg. Whereas, in Chinese culture, it’s dancing around this idea  of yin and yang, making sure that your body doesn’t have too much heat or not enough. And essentially, both is about balance. 

其实,不管是吃萝卜还是姜还是苹果,这两句俗语都不是绝对的。更不应该被理解为是有医疗效果的。它们是帮助人们记住要过上平衡,健康的生活。因此,这两句话总结了文化上的差别,西方文化更在乎蔬菜和水果,每天至少要吃5样。中国文化呢是围绕着阴和阳这个概念,确保身体里的热气和寒气是平衡的。说到底,本质上,这两个说法是一样的,都是关于平衡。

Qíshí, bùguǎn shì chī luóbo háishì jiāng háishì píngguǒ, zhè liǎng jù súyǔ dōu bùshì juéduì de. Gèng bù yìng gāi bèi lǐjiě wéi shì yǒu yīliáo xiàoguǒ de. Tāmen shì bāngzhù rénmen jì zhù yàoguò shàng pínghéng, jiànkāng de shēnghuó. Yīncǐ, zhè liǎng jù huà zǒngjiéle wénhuà shàng de chābié, xīfāng wénhuà gèng zàihū shūcài hé shuǐguǒ, měitiān zhìshǎo yào chī 5 yàng. Zhōngguó wénhuà ne shì wéiràozhe yīn hé yáng zhège gàiniàn, quèbǎo shēntǐ lǐ de rèqì hé hánqì shì pínghéng de. Shuō dàodǐ, běnzhí shàng, zhè liǎng gè shuōfǎ shì yīyàng de, dōu shì guānyú pínghéng.

Alex: Yeah, fundamentals, it’s come from the same place, which is the desire to want to look after yourself because we think that it can affect our future and can affect our health. And it can and it’s right. Everything in moderation, except moderation. 

嗯,基本原理是一样的,就是我们想要照顾自己的意愿。因为我们认为会影响我们的未来和我们的健康。这是正确的。一切都要约束着适度进行,除了约束本身。

En, jīběn yuánlǐ shì yīyàng de, jiùshì wǒmen xiǎng yào zhàogù zìjǐ de yìyuàn. Yīnwèi wǒmen rènwéi huì yǐngxiǎng wǒmen de wèilái hé wǒmen de jiànkāng. Zhè shì zhèngquè de. Yīqiè dōu yāo yuēshùzhe shìdù jìnxíng, chúle yuēshù běnshēn.

Kaycee: What’s your diet? 

你有什么饮食规划吗?

Nǐ yǒu shé me yǐnshí guīhuà ma?

Alex: I would say, definitely an apple a day and definitely lots of ginger. 

每天肯定吃一个苹果和很多的姜。

Měitiān kěndìng chī yīgè píngguǒ hé hěnduō de jiāng.

Kaycee: There we go! A mix of both! Okay, well, thank you for taking the time and joining me with this and providing me with your insight. It’s be a lot of fun. 

太好了,两者混合!好的,谢谢你抽出你宝贵的时间来跟我聊这个话题,并提供了你的见解。很好玩。

Tài hǎole, liǎng zhě hùnhé! Hǎo de, xièxiè nǐ chōuchū nǐ bǎoguì de shíjiān lái gēn wǒ liáo zhège huàtí, bìng tígōngle nǐ de jiànjiě. Hěn hǎowán.

Alex: Thanks for having me. Thank you.

谢谢你邀请我,谢谢。 

Xièxiè nǐ yāoqǐng wǒ, xièxiè.

Kaycee: See you next time!

下次见!

Xià cì jiàn!

Also available on most major podcast platforms (e.g. Apple Podcasts / Google Podcasts / CastBox / etc.).

In this episode, I explore China’s one-child policy, which is often seen by the West as the government abusing its people’s birth right, freedom of expression and human rights. I look at why the policy was adopted in the first place and the impact it subsequently had on the country. 

哈喽,大家好。我是Kaycee。

我们都知道中国有过独生子女这个政策。甚至有人认为中国今天还在执行这个政策。

从西方角度看这个问题,人们往往会认为这是中国政府在干扰人民的生育权, 表达权,甚至人权。我们在下结论之前先看看当时中国政府为什么觉得有必要实施这样一个政策呢?

政策由来

从50年代到70年代,中国一直处于一种贫穷状态。吃饭要粮票,买东西要工业券。过剩人口,干部下放劳动,知识青年上山下乡,短缺经济。问题很严重。

到80年代的时候,很多社会学学者和领导人,已经普遍认为中国人口太多,影响了吃饭、穿衣、住房、交通、教育、卫生、就业、以及国家发展等各种问题,因此需要控制人口增长来解决这些问题。

尤其严重的是,中国人口在1963年到1970年这段时间增加得最快,当时,30岁以下的人约占全国人口总数65%,每年平均将有二千多万人进入结婚生育期。如果当时不提倡一对夫妇只能生育一个孩子,控制人口的增长,按当时一对夫妇平均生2.2个孩子计算,中国人口总数在20年后将达到13亿,在40年后将超过15亿。这意味着,当时中国共产党提出的国家战略目标,四个现代化 (工业现代化、农业现代化、国防现代化、科学技术现代化)会面临巨大的困难。人民的生活很难有多少改善。

所以,中国国家领导在1980年,经过3个月中5次人口座谈会讨论过后,开始提倡一对夫妇生育一个孩子的政策。

1982年2月9日,中共中央、国务院发出《关于进一步做好计划生育工作的指示》,将计划生育定为基本国策,并设定了到20世纪末把人口控制在12亿以内这个硬目标。1982年宪法有两处规定了计划生育,分别是第25条:“国家推行计划生育,使人口的增长同经济和社会发展计划相适应。”第49条:“夫妻双方有实行计划生育的义务。”

当时,自愿只生育一个子女或者未生育且依法只收养一个子女的育龄夫妻,经过核实后可得到一个《独生子女父母光荣证》以及一些优势,比如:

  • 每月发给5至20元的独生子女保健费;
  • 女职工除享受当时法律规定的休假外,经所在单位批准,可以再增加产假3个月,但减免3年独生子女父母奖励费;
  • 独生子女的托幼管理费和18周岁之前的医药费,由夫妻双方所在单位依照有关规定报销;
  • 独生子女父母,女方年满55周岁,男方年满60周岁的,每人享受不少于1000元的一次性奖励;

还有其他奖励,我就不一个一个说了。

那如果是双胞胎或者多胞胎怎么办呢?父母就不能领取《独生子女父母光荣证》了。虽然父母能享受大部分的奖励和优待,但是只能享受一个孩子的份。

对中国的影响

实施政策之后,中国发生了什么变化呢?

因为当时有严重的重男轻女现象,如果一个家庭只能要一个孩子,很多人还是想要男孩。因此,起初会有杀婴事件,尤其是在农村或者贫困地区。

可以生第二胎吗?也不是不可以。

生下第二胎或更多的孩子往往要交罚款,按规定,会收按照市统计部门公布的城镇居民年人均可支配收入或者农村居民年人均纯收入的3至10倍。

某些政治人物和有钱人可以轻而易举的违反这独生子女政策,无论是拉关系、行贿还是去其他国家生育子女,比如香港或者塞班岛。

普通人或者贫困家庭里肯定是付不起这钱的。那怎么办?做流产手术。有人自愿做,也有很多人被迫强行堕胎。有些孕妇竟然是在怀孕8个半月的时候进行堕胎手术的。

不然,生下孩子,孩子就不能入户口。这一类孩子被称为黑孩子,没有户籍,没有身份。这意味着这些孩子没有办法受到法律的保护,上不了学,没有医疗保健。 长大以后就业、结婚、买房都会有困难。他们的后代同样会沦为黑户,就这样无辜的丧失了他们的基本权利。

但是总体来讲,独生子女家庭给国家节约了大量资源,在经济社会建设发展中,他们为国家培育出了高素质的人才。更为重要的是,因为他们的牺牲和示范,整个社会的生育观念发生了深刻变化。“越穷越拼命生孩子,越拼命生孩子越穷”的误区终于得以彻底颠破,相对理性的生育观得以确立。推广现代化小家庭观念,打破传统大家族制度对于青年一代的枷锁。

也切切实实地提高了中国女性地位。九年义务教育强迫农村家庭让女孩子接受教育。没有男性继承人竞争资源,父母们把更多的精力花在女儿的教育和福利上,这是经历数百年的重男轻女之后一个重大的转变。女性第一次真正成为家庭成员的一份子,并拥有遗产继承权利。

独生子女政策极大改善了中国整体国民的教育水平。首先,全民普及避孕套,普及生育知识,断绝中国几千年表兄妹结婚陋习。九年义务教育说过了。那,在小的家庭中,父母能有更多的时间和更大的热情来培养一个孩子的养育、投入到他/她们的工作和业余爱好生活中。

独生子女计划生育政策是在特定的历史条件下形成的。虽然历史不能假设,但是理论上少生了4亿多人,客观上解决了数亿人的贫困,加速了中国人口、经济和社会的转型,有效地缓解了人口对资源、环境的压力。

从心理学方面来讲,独生子女的典型性格往往被定为:更加成熟、要求更高、自控力强、不轻易原谅他人、可靠、敏感、重视成就、更容易成为领导者。

政策终止

在2016年1月1日,施行了30多年的独生子女政策被终止,但是生育控制并没有受到完全的解放,只是变成了一对夫妻可以生育两个子女。

国外情况

有趣的是虽然西方国家从来没有实施过类似的政策,独生子女却在近几年流行起来了。当许多中国人为独生子女政策松动欢呼时,英国独生子女家庭却越来越多。有专家预计,到2022年超半数英国家庭将选择生育一个孩子。

新的一年刚刚到来,在未来的10年里中国人口以及相关政策方面又会发生什么呢?我们2030年回头再重温这个话题吧。

在这里,祝大家新年快乐,心想事成。我们下周见。